baku oil fields ww2

[83] Baku has an original and unique appearance, earning it a reputation as the 'Paris of the East'. From the late 18th century, Imperial Russia switched to a more aggressive geopolitical stance towards its two neighbours and rivals to the south, namely Iran and the Ottoman Empire. [75] Its Nizami Street and also the Neftchilar Avenue are among the most expensive streets in the world. [citation needed] Traces of human settlement go back to the Stone Age. It has been home to legendary jazz musicians like Vagif Mustafazadeh, Aziza Mustafa Zadeh, Rafig Babayev and Rain Sultanov. The intercity buses and metro use this type of card-based fare-payment system. compare قاپو qāpū in old Perso-Arabic spelling with modern Azerbaijani qapı, "door") or in suffixes, as و was often used to transcribe the vowel harmony in Azerbaijani (which was also the practice in Ottoman Turkish). Thanks SRG..always been curious...toward the end of that video there is a German general who like rubs his nose and smiles...who is this guy??? [20], In the wake of the demise of the Safavids, the Russians took advantage of the situation and invaded; the Safavids were forced to cede Baku to Russia for a few years. The independence of the Azerbaijani republic was significant but a short-lived chapter. [109][110] Since 2011 the city annually hosts WTA tennis event called Baku Cup.[111]. However Great Britain the U.S. and Soviets had already a plan to mass bomb the oil fields if the Germans got close to capturing it. [128] From April to November Baku Port is accessible to ships loading cargoes for direct voyages from Western European and Mediterranean ports. Teze Bey is the most popular hamam (traditional bath) in Baku. [107][108], First class sporting facilities were built for the indoor games, including the Palace of Hand Games and Heydar Aliyev Sports and Exhibition Complex. In the early years of the Soviet era, Baku already had Azerbaijan State Oil Academy, Azerbaijan Medical University and Azerbaijan State Economic University. The daily mean temperature in July and August averages 26.4 °C (79.5 °F), and there is very little rainfall during that season. By 1900 the city had more than 3,000 oil wells, of which 2,000 were producing oil at industrial levels. [91][92], In recent years, the success of Azerbaijani performers such as AySel, Farid Mammadov, Sabina Babayeva, Safura and Elnur Hüseynov in the Eurovision Song Contest has boosted the profile of Baku's music scene, prompting international attention. The smallest of the Russian oil fields at Maikop was captured in August 1942, and it was expected that the two remaining fields and refineries in Grozny and Baku also would fall into German hands. Baku is situated on the western coast of Caspian Sea. Other parks and gardens include Heydar Aliyev Park, Samad Vurgun Park, Narimanov Park, Alley of Honor and the Fountains Square. The city walls of Baku were also rebuilt and strengthened. [28] It was mechanically drilled, though a number of hand-dug wells predate it. During the next and final bout of hostilities between the two, the Russo-Persian War of 1826–1828, Baku was briefly recaptured by the Iranians. The city underwent many major changes. The new Baku Cargo Terminal was officially opened in March 2005. [27], The Russians built the first oil-distilling factory in Balaxani in 1837. [48][49] On 13 June 1796, a Russian flotilla entered Baku Bay, and a garrison of Russian troops was placed inside the city. In the 10th century, the Arabian traveler, Marudee, reported that both white and black oil were being extracted naturally from Baku. The most important libraries in terms of historic document collections include the Nizami Museum of Azerbaijan Literature, the National Library of Azerbaijan, the Mirza Alakbar Central Library, the Samad Vurgun Library and Baku Presidential Library. These projects also caught the attention of international media as notable programmes such as Discovery Channel's Extreme Engineering did pieces focusing in on changes to the city.[87]. Operation Barbarossa, launched in June 1941, failed to achieve Hitler's objective of decisively defeating the Soviet Union in a single campaign. Throughout history the transport system of Baku used the now-defunct horsecars, trams and narrow gauge railways. [81][82], Baku has wildly varying architecture, ranging from the Old City core to modern buildings and the spacious layout of Baku port. Oil was a problem for Germany from the first day of the War. Near the city, in Gobustan, Roman inscriptions dating from 84 to 96 CE were discovered. The Ottomans briefly gained control over Baku as a result of the Ottoman-Safavid War of 1578–1590; by 1607, it was again put under Iranian control. [67] The city's notable mosques include Juma Mosque, Bibi-Heybat Mosque, Muhammad Mosque and Taza Pir Mosque. Verily, the words of the Scriptures find illustration here: 'the rock poured me out rivers of oil. Drilling for oil began in the mid-1800s, with the first oil well drilled in the Bibi-Heybat suburb of Baku in 1846. [citation needed], According to the Ministry of Healthcare, healthcare facilities in Baku are "highly developed compared with the regions and doctors are waiting to work there, The regions, meanwhile, lack both doctors and clinics providing specialized medical treatment." In 1917, after the October Revolution and amidst the turmoil of World War I and the breakup of the Russian Empire, Baku came under the control of the Baku Commune, which was led by veteran Bolshevik Stepan Shahumyan. Mikayil Mushfig, Bakuvian poet and victim of the Stalinist purges. Had the German forces been able to capture these fields and hold them, Germany’s petroleum worries would have been over. Winter snow storms are occasional; snow usually melts within a few days after each snowfall. Log in or Sign up to interact with the community. During the World War II, Imperial Russia invaded eastern Galicia and occupied the oil fields. Baku's vicinities feature Yanar Dag, an ever-blazing spot of natural gas. Publicly run kindergartens and elementary schools (years 1 through 11) are operated by local wards or municipal offices. Modern oil fields of Azerbaijan. The largest universities according to the student population are Baku State University and Azerbaijan State Economic University. Winter is cool and occasionally wet, with the daily mean temperature in January and February averaging 4.3 °C (39.7 °F). [citation needed], Baku is twinned with:[132][133][in chronological order]. Among Baku's cultural venues are Azerbaijan State Philharmonic Hall, Azerbaijan State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre. In the vicinity of the city there are a number of mud volcanoes (Keyraki, Bogkh-bogkha, Lokbatan and others) and salt lakes (Boyukshor, Khodasan and so on). [35] The newly independent Azerbaijani republic, being unable to defend the independence of the country on their own, asked the Ottoman Empire for military support in accordance with clause 4 of the treaty between the two countries. However, German forces occupied vast swathes of Soviet territory and industry, and the war was still going fairly well for the Germans. The Martyrs' Lane, formerly the Kirov Park, is dedicated to the memory of those who lost their lives during the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and also to the 137 people killed on Black January. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, massive fortifications were undertaken in Baku and the surrounding towns. UEFA Europa League Final 2019 was played at the Olympic Stadium in Baku on 29 May 2019 between English sides Chelsea and Arsenal. The further etymology is unclear. This pogrom was known as the September Days. When Baku was occupied by the Russian troops during the war of 1804–13, nearly the entire population of some 8,000 people was ethnic Tat. The city's second largest stadium, Tofiq Bahramov Stadium hosts a number of domestic and international competitions and was the main sport centre of the city for a long period until the construction of Baku Olympic Stadium. [62], Baku has been a cosmopolitan city at certain times during its history, meaning ethnic Azerbaijanis did not constitute the majority of population. Festivals include Baku International Film Festival, Baku International Jazz Festival, Novruz Festival, Gül Bayramı (Flower Festival) and the National Theater Festival. Renovation has begun on seven of the original 11 synagogues, including the Gilah synagogue, built in 1896, and the large Kruei Synagogue. Indeed, the city is renowned for its fierce winter snow storms and harsh winds. With economic development, old buildings such as Atlant House were razed to make way for new ones. Many of the city's landmarks were built during the early 20th century, when architectural elements of the European styles were combined in eclectic style. By the 15th century, oil for lamps was obtained from hand-dug surface wells. Improvements were made in the general cleaning, maintenance, and garbage collection, and these services are now at Western European standards. This Many clubs that are open until dawn can be found throughout the city. Standard Oil promised to supply the fuel. For Baku supplied 80% of the petrol, 90% of its naphtha and 96% of its lubricants to the Soviet Union war machine. The Wehrmacht's drive into the Caucasus in August 1942 seemed unstoppable, and taking the oil cities of Maikop, Grozny, and Baku would have solved one of Germany's most serious strategic problems. [114] The city's three main football clubs are Neftchi Baku, Inter Baku and Qarabağ FK of whom first has eight Premier League titles making Neftchi the most successful Azerbaijani football club. Moreover, Baku has numerous libraries, many of which contain vast collections of historic documents from the Roman, Byzantine, Ottoman and Soviet periods, as well as from other civilisations of the past. Welcome to the WWII Forums! In 1813, following the Russo-Persian War of 1804–1813, Qajar Iran was forced to sign the Treaty of Gulistan with Russia, which provided for the irrevocable cession of Baku and most of Iran's territories in the North Caucasus and South Caucasus to Russia. In the Azerbaijan Women's Volleyball Super League, Baku is represented by Rabita Baku, Azerrail Baku, Lokomotiv Baku and Azeryol Baku. [46][47], Until 1988, Baku had very large Russian, Armenian, and Jewish populations which contributed to cultural diversity and added in various ways (music, literature, architecture and progressive outlook) to Baku's history. [14] [102], In the Lonely Planet "1000 Ultimate Experiences", Baku placed 8th among the top 10 party cities in the world. Baku is also one of world's leading chess centres, having produced famous grandmasters like Teimour Radjabov, Vugar Gashimov, Garry Kasparov, Shahriyar Mammadyarov and Rauf Mammadov, as well as the arbiter Faik Hasanov. This included Romania which had fought with the Allies in World War I. Romania was critical because of the vital Ploesti oil fields. To me this was Hitler's greatest mistake of the war, not putting more emphasis on the south, which at times was against the advice of his generals. [115][116] The move was part of £16 million agreement between Manganese Bronze subsidiary LTI Limited and Baku Taxi Company.[117][118]. Buildings with all-glass shells have appeared around the city, the most prominent examples being the International Mugham Center, Azerbaijan Tower, Heydar Aliyev Cultural Centre, Flame Towers, Baku Crystal Hall, Baku White City, SOCAR Tower and DENIZ Mall. Baku ranked as one of the largest centres for the production of oil industry equipment before World War II. Secondly the Germans had access to the Romanian oil fields, which were some of the largest in the world, in Europe second only to the Baku oil fields in the USSR, and really not all that great compared to US oil, but [121][122], Baku Railway Station is the terminus for national and international rail links to the city. MAZI dipllomats worked to develop trade relations with the Balkan countries and to bring the countries in the rgion into the Axis. Religious minorities include Russian Orthodox Christians, Catholic Levantines, Georgian Orthodox Christians, Lutherans, Ashkenazi Jews and Sufi Muslims. The World War II Battle of Stalingrad was fought to determine who would have control of the Baku oil fields. As of 2011[update], 1,000 black cabs are ordered by Baku Taxi Company, and as part of a programme originally announced by the Transport Ministry of Azerbaijan, there is a plan to introduce London cabs into Baku. The main movie theatre is Azerbaijan Cinema. Baku is the sole metropolis in Azerbaijan. In the spring of 1796, by Catherine II's order, General Valerian Zubov's troops started a large campaign against Qajar Persia. [106] Baku is also to host the fourth edition of the Islamic Solidarity Games in 2017. During this time, the population of Baku was small (approximately 5,000), and the economy was ruined as a result of constant warfare. Standard passed to … It was constructed to be a major cargo hub in the CIS countries and is actually now one of the biggest and most technically advanced in the region. [39] Thousands of buildings from the Soviet period were demolished to make way for a green belt on its shores; parks and gardens were built on the land reclaimed by filling up the beaches of the Baku Bay. Four out of five Soviet aircraft, tanks and trucks used in World War II ran on fuel produced in Baku refineries from oil extracted in the Baku oil fields. Since about 1921, the city was headed by Baku City Executive Committee, commonly known in Russian as Bakgorispolkom. The original Baku fields on the west shore of the Capsian were sabotaged by the Soviets themselves as they left the area in anticipation of the Nazis actually getting to the fields as they did at Maikop and Grozny. Oil War 1942. Welcome to WWII Forums! ", "Hotels in Baku earned 6,8 million euros last year", "Azerbaijani flag flies on world's tallest flagpole", "Bakı dünyanın ən bahalı 48-ci şəhəridir, 13 July 2011, Azadlıq Radiosu. The port's throughput capacity reaches 15 million tonness of liquid bulk and up to 10 million tons of dry cargoes. [129] There are also several smaller military airbases near Baku, such as Baku Kala Air Base, intended for private aircraft, helicopters and charters. Vagit Alekperov, President of the leading Russian oil company LUKOIL. This is one of the earliest written evidences for Baku. Baku's largest industry is petroleum, and its petroleum exports make it a large contributor to Azerbaijan's balance of payments. This popular name (Badkubə in modern Azerbaijani script) actually gained currency as a nickname for the city by the 19th century (e.g., it is used in Akinchi, volume 1, issue 1, p. 1), and is also reflected in the city's modern nickname as the "City of Winds" (Azerbaijani: Küləklər şəhəri). Indeed, it does feel incredibly odd though that they ‘cut corners’ in this aspect of the invasion when they poured so much resources into far less important objectives in the north. Western-style clubs target younger, more energetic crowds. [10][103], Baku has large sections of greenery either preserved by the National Government or designated as green zones. When then took Maikop it nearly took them a year to get the oilfields running again. Filmdə ikinci Dünya müharibəsinin tarixinə tamamilə yeni baxış bucağından – neft uğrunda savaş prizmasından baxılır. Headed by General William Thomson, British troops of 5,000 soldiers, including parts of Dunsterforce, arrived in Baku on 17 November. In ancient times Bairamali Hamam was called "Bey Hamam". [41], At the same time Baku is noted as a very windy city throughout the year, hence the city's nickname the "City of Winds", and gale-force winds, the cold northern wind khazri and the warm southern wind gilavar are typical here in all seasons. Overall Soviet fuel (note: not oil) production increased in this time period, after all. But by the time the XXII Corps moved ahead to Winniki, the Soviets had entered the picture and occupied the fields ahead of them. This is largely because of its northerly latitude and the fact that it is located on a peninsula on the shore of the Caspian Sea. It hosted the 57th Eurovision Song Contest in 2012, the 2015 European Games, 4th Islamic Solidarity Games, the F1 Azerbaijan Grand Prix since 2016, hosted the final of the 2018–19 UEFA Europa League, and will be one of the host cities for UEFA Euro 2020. Capturing the refineries and oil fields around Baku would have given Hitler the oil he needed to fuel the German economy and war-machine. His thought process was that the face of the Soviet Union was all grand and mighty, but really, “house was rotten”. Many Galicians, especially Jews, fled during this period to spend most of 1914 and 1915 in Vienna or safer zones in the Austrian empire. On 2 September 2010 with the inauguration of National Flag Square, Baku set the world record for tallest flagpole;[72][73] on 24 May 2011, the city of Dushanbe in Tajikistan set a new record with a 3 metres (9.8 feet)-higher flagpole. The existence of petroleum has been known since the 8th century. In 2003, UNESCO placed the Inner City on the List of World Heritage in Danger, citing damage from a November 2000 earthquake, poor conservation as well as "dubious" restoration efforts. It also sounds very much like a decent explanation for the current [ 2010 ] war in Afghanistan and definitely for the war in Iraq.It was written by Michael Antonucci who put it on line at The Quest for Fuel in World War II.He also wrote Code Crackers: Civil War Cryptanalysis. "Azerbaijan bids for 2020 Olympics in Baku – Olympics – ESPN", "Olympic News – Official Source of Olympic News – Olympic.org", "Chelsea win the 2019 UEFA Europa League", "Manganese Bronze seals biggest London taxi order", "Manganese takes black cab to Azerbaijan", "British firm wins £16m Azerbaijan order for its Chinese built taxis", "Baku Metro Chief: "Baku-Sumgait metro line is not planned, "41 new underground stations to be constructed in Azerbaijani capital in the next 17 years", "How to pay your fare-Bakı Metropoliteni", "Azerbaijani FM: Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railroad to be built in 2012", "Baku Sea Port expects for passenger trip Anzali-Baku", "Heydar Aliyev International Airport (BAK/UBBB), Baku, Azerbaijan", Fevralın 14-ü Azərbaycan Hərbi Hava Qüvvələrinin (HHQ) yaranma günüdür, "Azerbaijan: Energy-Rich, Healthcare-Poor", "The main directions of foreign relations of the executive authorities of Baku", "АЗЕРБАЙДЖАН В МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫХ КУЛЬТУРНЫХ СВЯЗЯХ(1946–1990 гг. 1927, Standard Oil and IG Farben founded the company „Standard IG Farben“; president was the oil dealer William Farish from Texas. Baku also has several football clubs in the premier and regional leagues, including AZAL and Ravan in Premier League. These have led some to suggest the existence of a Bronze Age settlement within the city's territory. The construction was planned to take place in three stages and to be completed by 2016. Baku lies on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, alongside the Bay of Baku. [130], Baku State University, the first established university in Azerbaijan was opened in 1919 by the government of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. By the end of 1941, hundred of thousands of Azerbaijanis had joined the People's Voluntary Corps. In the 1st century AD, the Romans organised two Caucasian campaigns and reached Baku. However, the sealing off of a number of wells turned out to be a tragedy. Уралочка, Ямамай и ЦЗ. )", "Monument in Dakar, on which "City Baku" was written in Russian and "City Dakar" in French", "Embassy of Azerbaijan Republic in Italy", "Sister Cities: Baku and Houston. [8] Baku is located 28 metres (92 ft) below sea level, which makes it the lowest lying national capital in the world and also the largest city in the world located below sea level. This article tells us what the title says. The motorway network around Baku is well developed and is constantly being extended. [32] The oil boom contributed to the massive growth of Baku. [29] Soon after investors appeared in Baku, including the Nobel Brothers in 1873 and the Rothschilds in 1882. It was built sometime during the 12th–14th centuries. In the 10th century, the Arabian traveler, Marudee, reported that both white and black oil were being extracted naturally from Baku. The Heydar Aliyev International Airport is the only commercial airport serving Baku. The first was the 2016 European Grand Prix, with the track going around the old city. Fifty years before the battle, Baku produced half of the world's oil supply.[69]. It was ruled by Mirza Muhammed Khan but soon became a dependency of the much stronger Quba Khanate. Azeri M… Between 1856 and 1910 Baku's population grew at a faster rate than that of London, Paris or New York. The oil economy of Baku is undergoing a resurgence, with the development of the massive Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli field (Shallow water Gunashli by SOCAR, deeper areas by a consortium led by BP), development of the Shah Deniz gas field, the expansion of the Sangachal Terminal and the construction of the BTC Pipeline. During Soviet rule, the city was spelled in Cyrillic as "Бакы" in Azerbaijani (while the Russian spelling was and still is "Баку", Bakú). The city is listed 48th in the 2011 list of the most expensive cities in the world conducted by the Mercer Human Resource Consulting. During World War II and the Nazi German invasion of the southwestern Soviet Union, Baku had become of vital strategic importance. [63] In 2003 Baku additionally had 153,400 internally displaced persons and 93,400 refugees.[64][65]. The religion with the largest community of followers is Islam. Beginning in late 1943 drilling work in Baku was reestablished. The boulevard contains an amusement park, yacht club, musical fountain, statues and monuments. [16] Further archeological excavations revealed various prehistoric settlements, native temples, statues and other artifacts within the territory of the modern city and around it. Agha Mikayil Hamam was constructed in the 18th century by Haji Agha Mikayil on Kichik Gala Street in the Old City (Icherisheher). Seeking to capitalize on the existing ethnic conflicts, by spring 1918, Bolsheviks inspired and condoned civil warfare in and around Baku. Partnership relations also exist at different levels with:[145] Paris, Vienna, Tbilisi, Nur-Sultan, Minsk, Moscow, Volgograd, Kizlyar, Tashkent and Chengdu. The World War II Battle of Stalingrad was fought to determine who would have control of Baku oil fields. [50], Today the vast majority of the population of Baku are ethnic Azerbaijanis (more than 90%). By the end of the 19th century skilled workers and specialists flocked to Baku. per cent of all Soviet oil.4 In 1942, the British Ministry of Economic Warfare calculated the annual outputs of these fields to be approximately 2,500,000 tons each.5 A pipeline, running from Makhatchkala (320 km north of Baku on the Caspian) to Rostov, connected these two fields. [88] In 2009 the Inner City was removed from the List of World Heritage in Danger.[89]. [21] By 1730, the situation had deteriorated for the Russians; the successes of Nader Shah (r. 1736–1747) forced them to make an agreement near Ganja on 10 March 1735, ceding the city and all other conquered territories in the Caucasus back to Iran. You are at a gateway to WWII discussion, research, exploration, & analysis. The city will also host three group games and one quarter-final of the UEFA Euro 2020 European Football Championship.[105]. Especially since oil is one of the main factors for invading the USSR in the first place. Most of the walls and towers, strengthened after the Russian conquest in 1806, survived. Hamams play a very important role in the architectural appearance of Baku.[86]. The State Road M-1 and the European route E60 are the two main motorway connections between Europe and Azerbaijan. [15] Near Nardaran, in a place called Umid Gaya, a prehistoric observatory was discovered, where on the rock the images of sun and various constellations are carved together with a primitive astronomic table. Baku Metro was opened in November 1967 and includes 3 lines and 25 stations at present; 170 million people used Baku Metro over the past five years. Shortly after, Azerbaijani forces, with support of the Ottoman Army of Islam led by Nuru Pasha, started their advance onto Baku, eventually capturing the city from the loose coalition of Bolsheviks, Esers, Dashnaks, Mensheviks and British forces under the command of General Lionel Dunsterville on 15 September 1918. Thus, there were plans drawn up for the British to extensively bomb Soviet Oil Fields near Baku, as that was the oil … Oil is in the air one breathes, in one's nostrils, in one's eyes, in the water of the morning bath (though not in the drinking water, for that is brought in bottles from distant mineral springs), in one's starched linen – everywhere. Baku has a temperate semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification: BSk) with hot and humid summers, cool and occasionally wet winters, and strong winds all year long. Local rail transport includes the Baku Funicular and the Baku Metro, a rapid-transit system notable for its art, murals, mosaics and ornate chandeliers. One of the more prominent institutions headquartered in Baku is the International Bank of Azerbaijan, which employs over 1,000 people. Resulting in citizens travelling for many hours to Baku to receive adequate medical treatment.

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