candu reactor pdf

<> Subsequently, more general core modelling concepts are presented, including the two-step approach to neutronics calculations: multi-group lattice transport calculations, followed by full-core, few-group diffusion calculations. . w����Rb(�J�J^$ The incentive for such a study is the possibility of improving the uranium resource utilization and reducing costs. <>/XObject<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 720 540] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Research and initial drafting by Albert Lee (AG emphasis is placed on the CANDU 600 MW(e) design. Fuel channel pressure tubes are critical components of the CANDU reactor core which require periodic inspection to demonstrate continued fitnes s for service. Frontmatter (pdf 78kb) as of 2016.12.27; Prologue - CANDU in Context (pdf 1.5Mb) by Dr. William J. Garland, as of 2014.09.18; Chapter 1 Introduction to Nuclear Reactors (pdf 700kb) by Dr. Robin Chaplin, as of 2016.09.08 Appendix - Historical Background (pdf 846kb) by Dr. Robin Chaplin, as of 2016.09.08 Built on proven Canadian technology, this [���q(4g�:�V0e5Q6bF�5��n#�[��=YL M�� ��pvz�hf,�}@�Ї �r����=����v�O8?��En�v�``gD��Lʢ �#m�^P6�kEZ���dC���d���Чm ,�f�@�/k��5����إ�U�[7�]����>�b-�������VaRE&&���͵� ��r��$� M��@�d�^f>�t Buss Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Sheridan Science and Technology Park Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5K 1B2 Abstract NG CANDU is the “Next® ������^� AeIa����e��؟EE��������op6���۠��2��[�d�֙0��N��/�S��A1�Ԝơ�K{��5lH͸l�+�)W��~�8�d�|QD��dn�]�� Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor.docx Compelling environmental benefits Every twin AFCR generates enough power to meet the daily needs of two million people with no emissions or other pollutants. ���V�@6�b`G���a�k�EgW\�y1�^��Ӭ�k2v��A The CANDU reactor system has proven itself to be a world leader in terms of station availability and low total unit energy cost. Chapter 5 Reactor Dynamics (pdf 1.5kb) by Dr. Eleodor Nichita and Dr. Benjamin Rouben , as of 2017.03.21. 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After the 2nd year, the CANDU reactor begins to operate practically as a thorium burner.Very high burn-up can be achieved with the same fuel (>160,000 MW D/MT). 3 0 obj Shutdown system number one (SDS-1) consists of cadmium absorbers inserted vertically into the reactor from top to bottom. %PDF-1.5 The chapter includes a note on the advantages of the CANDU reactor compared with other water cooled reactors and a general review of reactor safety as applicable to most water cooled reactors. How and Why is CANDU designed the way it is 1 Revision 3 – February 2003 1. 307,1980 I I I FIGURE 1.2-10 CUMULATIVE LOAD FACTORS FOR REACTORS OVER 500 MW(e) TO END OF SEPTEMBER 1960 The heat transport system (HTS) circulates the coolant through the reactor to remove the heat of fission from the fuel. 0000001828 00000 n The use of natural uranium fuel in our EC6 reactors permits fuel cycle independence and avoids having to . INDEX Section Page 1 Introduction 1 2 Fuel Design 1 … CANDU PWR CANDU CANDU PWR CANDU CANDU PWR PWR PWR CANDU CANDU Ref: Nuclear Engineering International Vol. Title: Harmonization of Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing: Lessons Learned from Transport Produced by: World Nuclear Association in cooperation with CANDU Owners Group. endobj 2 0 obj Legislature) “It is not right to say that a catastrophic accident is impossible . On-power refuelling (CANDU reactors); Human/machine interface. 0000001261 00000 n stream This focused development is one of the reasons that CANDU … 0000002084 00000 n %PDF-1.3 %���� In nuclear reactor PSAs, risk is usually defined by the frequency and magnitude of radioactive releases to the environment. 77 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 81 /H [ 1261 352 ] /L 277526 /E 8324 /N 13 /T 275868 >> endobj xref 77 26 0000000016 00000 n 1.1 Overview Experts in The choice of D 2 O as the moderator also allows other fuel cycles to be used in CANDU reactors. Chapter 6 Thermalhydraulic Design (pdf 11.4Mb) by Dr. Nikola K. Popov, as of 2017.03.12 Chapter 7 Thermalhydraulic 0000001613 00000 n endstream The EC6 offers reliability, flexibility in operation to load follow and the ability to be connected to most grids of most countries • Proven CANDU reactor strengths include: 9 9 5 0 obj 0000002488 00000 n reactor. endobj UNRESTRICTED TDS1 -105 I I | CANDU NUCLEAR POWER SYSTEM I • ABSTRACT IThis report provides a comprehensive summary of the many components that make up a CANDU reactor. �2���]�i9���E4W_j���dQ (/�R(�|m�t�.c���@�\ꛩk���,>}�>) �����u��Q2 h��z�jyI��P����R��ڢ��!6��}. endobj CANDU Reactor Fuel Cycle Flexibility: › - CANDU Fuel Cycle Advantages › - Operational Reactors (NUE) › - CANDU Reactor Inherent Safety Features › - New Build Reactors (AFCR) › - Future With Water Coolant › Dr. S. Kuran › VP, Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor Workshop on Advanced Reactors… This report presents the example of transport and extracts potential lessons to be drawn for international harmonization of reactor design and approaches to licensing. tary reactor-physics design of CANDU reactors is presented, and the associated neutron energy spectrum is discussed. Introduction to Nuclear Reactors – June 2015 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Nuclear Reactors prepared by Dr. Robin Chaplin Summary: This chapter provides a top-level introduction to nuclear reactors and surveys the world reactor situation. 0000008072 00000 n CORE MELTDOWNS IN CANDU REACTORS – KNOWN FACTS 3 of the uranium oxide fuel itself would probably occur. 25 No. In 1985 four of the top ten reactor units in the world were CANDU reactors operating in South Korea and Canada. The CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) is a Canadian pressurized heavy-water reactor design used to generate electric power. endobj reactor rated at 450 MWe with two steam generators and two heat transport pumps connected in series. CANDU stations use experts in health physics, radiation protection, shielding, and environ-mental safety to ensure that reactor operations comply with Canadian regulations in a safe and controlled manner. Tsang and D.B. 0000002368 00000 n 4 0 obj CANDU, short for Canada Deuterium Uranium, is a nuclear reactor that uses heavy water as a moderator and coolant and natural uranium as a fuel source. pressure tube reactor. deal with complex issues such as reprocessing and enrichment. Reactor Dynamics – December 2016 CHAPTER 5 Reactor Dynamics prepared by Eleodor Nichita, UOIT and Benjamin Rouben, 12 & … . The CANDU reactor design (or PHWR – Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) has been developed since the 1950s in Canada, and more recently also in India. CANDU 6.docx CANDU 6 The CANDU power reactor offers a combination of proven and superior state-of-the-art technology. A slow or thermal neutron, possessing a speed of approximately 2200 mis, is absorbed in a Uranium-235 nucleus. 0000001995 00000 n 0000008050 00000 n reactors, arguably present a similar driver today for reactor design standardization and harmonized approaches to licensing. It is somewhat an accident of history that Canada focussed all her nuclear power development effort on heavy water reactors. 0000005322 00000 n CANDU-PHW reactor core by introducing an annulus of enriched uranium around the central region of natural uranium. The CANDU® Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is the only all-Canadian – and most mature – SMR design available today to help the Government of Canada reach its goal of Net Zero by 2050. Reactor-Physics Analysis Basis for Current CANDU Presentation to US NRC 2002 December B. Rouben Manager, Reactor Core Physics AECL, Sheridan Park Pg 2 Purpose The objectives of this presentation are to: • discuss the basic design features of the current The acronym refers to its deuterium oxide (heavy water) moderator and its use of (originally, natural) uranium fuel. approximately apply to the CANDU reactor. For various outer zone enrichments and inner zone x����r�X���AAT�*�(l���ވ����c D�v�8M��{؞0�����ӱ�. … These reactors are heavy water cooled and moderated pressurized water reactors. Ao contrário da maioria dos reatores nucleares do mundo, que usam a combinação água leve urânio enriquecido, o Candu usa combinação água pesada e urânio natural [1].O principal usuário deste tipo de reator é o Canadá, … These were invented and developed in Canada in the 1960’s, when Canada decided that they did not want to build enrichment plants … 1. which lead to the steady-state condition in a CANDU nuclear reactor. <>>> CANDU is a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) that uses heavy water (deuterium oxide – D2O) as a moderator and coolant, and natural uranium as its fuel. The CANDU reactor design (or PHWR – Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) has been developed since the 1950s in Canada, and more recently also in India. 0000002249 00000 n *owi0�c(�nz�Ҋ]��68�7(2ozY�s�m�d�Պc����1��sp��תϔ+?���W������w���Yn���Bqט8N��Y"�X7 ���](Q���Aװ)C�ɃG,�H�Y��������d΁�L�������Ɠ�"K� kv��9��Nh_�� �������1�#���K5���|pH- 0000001068 00000 n Nuclear Power-> Nuclear Power Plant-> Types of Reactors-> CANDU - Heavy water reactor. 0000002822 00000 n Instead of using a single large reactor vessel as in a PWR or BWR, the … The CANDU-HWR uses a heavy water radial reflector. Since the early … reactor. Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactor, boiling water reactor (BWR), pressurized water reactor (PWR), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (WWER) plants are documented in the reports. CANDU plant (some, but not all, of which are retained in the ACR design), • present the computer programs used in reactor physics, and • describe some of the more important modelling and analytical capabilities of the reactor-physics toolset. . All CANDU reactors use heavy water as the moderator, in a system that is completely separate from the reactor coolant heavy water. CANDU Reactors CANada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors use heavy water as a coolant instead of regular old light water. The calandria is closed and supported by end shields at each end. tary reactor-physics design of CANDU reactors is presented, and the associated neutron energy spectrum is discussed. It was designed specifically for electricity production, unlike other major reactor types that evolved from other uses. Reactor Physics of NG CANDU by P.S.W. trailer << /Size 103 /Info 71 0 R /Encrypt 79 0 R /Root 78 0 R /Prev 275858 /ID[] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 78 0 obj << /Pages 72 0 R /Type /Catalog /DefaultGray 73 0 R /DefaultRGB 74 0 R /Outlines 82 0 R /PageMode /UseOutlines /PageLayout /SinglePage /OpenAction 80 0 R >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Filter /Standard /V 1 /R 2 /O ( :`$V|K/a�&�dX8�'v��3�-c�4N�>) /U (1�.熤&�z��ň�`�T{^K2��j'>) /P -44 >> endobj 80 0 obj << /S /GoTo /D [ 81 0 R /Fit ] >> endobj 101 0 obj << /S 197 /O 267 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 102 0 R >> stream 6 0 obj Response of the Critical Reactor to a Reactivity Change 7.0 Define log rate and reactor period and state their relationship 8.0 Describe the response of a CANDU reactor at low power to a small step insertion of positive reactivity 9.0 Explain the effect of delayed neutrons on reactor control. <> 0000002307 00000 n The design utilizes natural uranium fuel, computer-controlled operation, and on-line refueling. [or] if the reactor fails to shut down or the … <> Introduction - a reality check requires Quality of life Lots of Energy Coal Oil Gas Solar Wind Biogas Nuclear CANDU PWR BWR Gas reactors and other variations Resource limited Too dilute Let's step back to take a glimpse of the context into which CANDU must be placed. Chan, K.T. 0000001908 00000 n Figure 1-1 illustrates how CANDU reactors produce electricity. CANDU (sigla para Canadian Deuterium Uranium) é um modelo canadense de reator de água pesada pressurizada (PHWR) [1] para a produção de energia elétrica. This Uranium-236 nucleus subsequently breaks up into two fission fragments of unequal mass and concurrently emits several high energy The chapter includes a note on the advantages of the CANDU reactor compared with other water cooled reactors and a general review of reactor safety as applicable to most water cooled reactors. CANDU reactor. CANDU reactors. It was designed specifically for electricity production, unlike other major reactor types that evolved from stream 0000001207 00000 n CANDU is the most efficient of all reactors in using uranium: it uses about 15% less uranium than a pressurized water reactor for each megawatt of electricity produced Use of natural uranium widens the source of supply and makes fuel fabrication easier. Virtually all the systems in a nuclear power plant contain an instrumentation and control element. D �D)�:� ]AK�,�e�!�=���KN������mR�5�$�AO� >�M��������b�>�i 8]�20��q�&�L���h�dJ�������`�4IfJQ�۫�iY���f�z��.AL Cqz��L���Xf+�p�}��{ǟo[qE� ��E�s��5a�D�3\�Z2r3�CFn�8E�!�TIUb `�D ��Hz��_��f�Z��I{� �,J�n|�Q� �$����[�h���U�Q�����,�~�*F�gU)�*����P����I�����(�b���\���l3�Ɩ�\�l��UQ��P9��Yu����C&̋�ȭ����|eݽ�0� �����g�5��D��� �e�A_uB��r9Ou�h�BDz�e�ko�J�n��S?P큕�E���9� lR���{�g�)X�eƭXJ��4�. products: CANDU 6 and CANDU 9. 0000006698 00000 n The CANDU, for Canada Deuterium Uranium, is a Canadian pressurized heavy-water reactor design used tae generate electric pouer. Reactor CANDU Nuclear Reactor - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Subsequently, more general core modelling concepts are … 0000001591 00000 n Notley, N.J. Spinks ABSTRACT The CANDU reactor system has proven itself to be a world leader in terms of station availability and low total unit energy cost. Heavy water (D 2 O) is a natural form of water that is used as a moderator to slow down the neutrons in the reactor, enabling the use of natural uranium as fuel. The CANDU 3 … &��l��]R�2��0J���҃�,�9�M�N"AO��Z���"l���̎ 10.0 Define the following and state how they arise: Advanced CANDU Reactor ACR-700 • Builds on CANDU 6 design, project and operational experience • Retained traditional CANDU features: – Modular horizontal fuel channel – Fuel bundle design – Low temperature, low pressure The mean flight path length of a neutron between collisions (the “mean For educational use only, no assumed liability. The various commercial large power producing reactors are identified and described Reactor Assembly The CANDU 6 reactor assembly, shown in the figure opposite, includes the fuel channels contained in and supported by a horizontal cylindrical tank known as the calandria. This feature makes the in-core fuel This feature makes the in-core fuel management substantially different from that in reactors that must be refuelled during shut- Ontario Power Generation; Inspection & Maintenance Services Division has been operating a variety of inspection systems to perform volumetric and surface nondestructive examinations of the pressure tubes. Although some of the material presented is common to other reactor types, the design details described pertain to the CANDU reactor. As mentioned above, the hot heavy water coolant must transfer the heat to a steam generator, which can then boil the water and send steam to a turbine section. %'Fs�������v��n���A��sn�%�7����R�$*�j�w�� ��۲���xL��%�%��#~v�\i�? 0000002544 00000 n Advanced CANDU Reactor ACR-700 • Builds on CANDU 6 design, project and operational experience • Retained traditional CANDU features: – Modular horizontal fuel channel – Fuel bundle design – Low temperature, low pressure heavy water moderator – On-power fueling – Passive shutdown systems in low pressure moderator The acronym refers tae its deuterium oxide (hivy watter) moderator and its use o (originally, natural) uranium fuel. The reason that a steam generator is used is due to the fact that the heavy water coolant is radioactive from being in direct contact with the reactor core. The CANDU 6 design as implemented at sites in It concludes with some technical details of the proposed Advanced CANDU reactor for comparison with existing commercial CANDU reactors. 0000003927 00000 n The reactor … The last seven CANDU reactors have been built on budget and on or ahead of schedule Advanced safety features that go above and beyond That is, the denom inator in Eq. A CANDU SMR has the potential to achieve lower capital costs relative to GW-class reactors, a shorter construction timeline of 35 months for the first unit (30 months for nth unit) and a 94% lifetime capacity factor. It concludes with some Major I emphasis is placed on the CANDU 600 MW(e) design. Shutdown system number one (SDS-1) consists of 0000002427 00000 n A CANDU* reactor is a heavy-water-moderated power reactor of the general type developed in Canada by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). <> Each end shield comprises an inner and an outer tubesheet joined by lattice tubes at Initia1 Condition We suppose that initially 100 neutrons appear in a given neutron generation as a result of the fission processes. A twin AFCR saves up to 13 Week 2 - Dynamic Characteristics of CANDU Reactors 5-10 H:\Violeta 1 – Word\web\Dynamic Characteristics of CANDU Reactors The CANDU-HWR uses a heavy water radial reflector. The development of the first CANDU reactor began in 1954 through a partnership between Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Ontario Hydro and the Canadian General Electric Company. In so doing, the authors acknowledge that while The CANDU, for Canada Deuterium Uranium, is a Canadian pressurized heavy-water reactor design used tae generate electric pouer.The acronym refers tae its deuterium oxide (hivy watter) moderator and its use o (originally, natural) uranium fuel. reactor, known as the Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR-700 MWe) simulator. CORE MELTDOWNS IN CANDU REACTORS – KNOWN FACTS 1 compiled by G. Edwards Ph.D., President, Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility QUOTATIONS FROM: The Safety of Ontario’s Nuclear Reactors (1980) by the Select Committee on Ontario Hydro Affairs (Ont. The Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor (AFCR™) is a Generation III advanced fuel-efficient 740 MWe-class Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor developed by Candu Energy, a member of the SNC-Lavalin Group and China National Nuclear Corporation. The Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor (AFCR ) is a Generation III advanced fuel-efficient 740 MWe-class Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor developed by Candu Energy, a member of the SNC-Lavalin Group and China National Nuclear * CANDU - Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor + LWR - Light Wate r Reacto ATOMIC ENERGY OF CANADA LIMITED Power Projects Sheridan Park Research Community Mississauga, Ontario, L5K 1B2 AECL5609 March 1976. 0000000885 00000 n 1 0 obj This reflector also has an important effect on reactor dynamics because of its very long diffusion length. characteristics of the very successful CANDU 6 reactor. %���� Candu Reactor Severe Accident Analysis For Accident Management CANDU reactor is provided with safety features for severe accidents mitigation: two independent shutdown systems, moderator system and the shield tank to remove the reactor decay heat in case of unavailability of other heat sinks. CANDU Refuelling is carried out with the reactor at power. CANDU reactors have two independent shutdown systems that can be actuated by the in-core reactor protection system and that are able to effect a rapid reactor shutdown. About 4% of the reactor thermal power appears in the moderator, due to gamma radiation, the slowing down of fast neutrons, and heat transferred from the fuel channels. One fuelling machine inserts new fuel bundles into the fuel channel, in the same direction as the flow of coolant in that channel, left to right in this diagram. endobj This feature is unique to CANDU reactors. CANDU-9 Simulator CANada Deuterium Uranium Reactor Simulator The CANDU-900 MWe Compact Simulator was originally developed to assist Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in the design of the plant display system. CANDU reactors have two independent shutdown systems that can be actuated by the in-core reactor protection system and that are able to effect a rapid reactor shutdown. Dunn, J.J. Lipsett, M.J.F. The 2 FUTURE TRENDS IN THE DESIGN OF CANDU REACTORS by J.T. 0000007775 00000 n Participants in the workshops are provided with instruction and practice in using the simulator, thus gaining insight and understanding of the design and operational characteristics of ACR-700 nuclear power plant systems in normal and accident situations. CANDU 6.docx CANDU 6 The CANDU power reactor offers a combination of proven and superior state-of-the-art technology. 0000002188 00000 n x��Wms�F����>�2�wI�g0����qm����Jd��#� ����$����X0b��yv�vI������/F�����ѐ|�v8�s.��! 0000004216 00000 n This reflector also has an important effect on reactor dynamics because of its very long diffusion length. Supported by end shields at each end such as reprocessing and enrichment because. Water reactor driver today for reactor design and approaches to licensing production, other. �� # ~v�\i� major reactor types that evolved from other uses reactors permits fuel cycle and. 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