effects of deforestation wikipedia

Predictions suggest 137 plant, animal and insect species are lost every day due to rainforest deforestation. Deforestation is a primary contributor to climate change. And even the properly planted trees have had great difficulty surviving the combined impacts of prolonged droughts, pest infestation, and fires. It is no coincidence that Brazil has recently become the world's largest beef exporter at the same time that the Amazon rainforest is being clear cut.[64]. [72], Considered the largest reserve of biological diversity in the world, the Amazon Basin is also the largest Brazilian biome, taking up almost half the nation's territory. 48-60. [12] In order to combat Carbon (C) emissions caused by deforestation and forest degradation actions that sequester and store this Carbon must be taken. This can have a global effect by creating shortages in medicine worldwide. [50] Additionally, a 120-year regression model found that RIL would have a significantly higher reforestation in 30 years (“18.3 m3 ha−1”) in relation to conventional logging (“14.0 m3 ha−1”). ", https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-05/iifa-waw052520.php, "The Global Forest Transition as a Human Affair", APP & APRIL announces end to deforestation in Indonesia, https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Deforestation&oldid=7178585, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License, maintain the oxygen and carbon dioxide (CO2). Farming is the most common reason for this action. Nonetheless, China currently has the highest afforestation rate of any country or region in the world, with 4.77 million hectares (47,000 square kilometers) of afforestation in 2008. China is trying to correct these problems with projects such as the Green Wall of China, which aims to replant forests and halt the expansion of the Gobi Desert. Deforestation also releases sequestered carbon. The acceleration of deforestation affects humans in many other categories. Possible methods of reforestation include large-scale industrial plantations, the introduction of trees into existing agricultural systems, small-scale plantations by landowners, establishment of woodlots on communal lands, and rehabilitation of degraded areas through tree planting or assisted natural regeneration. This greater the above ground tree biomass density, the greater the amount of Carbon (C) that the forest is able to sequester and storage. When they are degraded, it can set off a devastating chain of events both locally and around the world.Loss of species: Seventy percent of the world's plants and animals live in forests and are losing their habitats to deforestation, according to National Geographic. The loss is more severe in so called primary forests, which are forests that have yet been untouched by humans. The cases of urbanization and agriculture are closely related when it comes to deforestation and climate change. Founded in 1972, the centennial of the first Arbor Day observance in the 19th century, the Foundation has grown to become the largest nonprofit membership organization dedicated to planting trees, with over one million members, supporters, and valued partners. Deforestation is often described as the changing of land from forested to non-forested by means both natural and unnatural. “Climate Change, Deforestation, and the Fate of the Amazon.” Science, vol. [45][46] In a simulation of the deforestation process in the Amazon, researchers found that surface and soil temperatures increased by 1 to 3 degrees Celsius demonstrating the loss of the soil's ability to absorb radiation and moisture. [62] In Brazil specifically, the jungle has been wiped out in order to house cattle and other valuable agricultural items by means of ‘fishbone deforestation’. [48][12] The most efficient and cost-effective way to combat this is through sustainable forest management practices, afforestation, reforestation, and forest conservation; take together these practices may provide Carbon (C) emissions reductions of up to 25% which will effectively curb climate change. Most of the area that has undergone deforestation is actually unsuitable for long-term … Deforestation & the Effects It Has on a Global Scale. These repeated practices would create an unsustainable cycle needed to keep producing expected yields. The main area of concern of deforestation is in tropical rain forests since they are home to the majority of the planet's biodiversity. Deforestation is linked with CO2 emissions,[23] in part due from crops having a relatively less impressive carbon storage per unit area then wooded areas or forests. The most common reason is to clear the land to make farms and ranches. [6] Forests cover 31% of the land area on Earth and annually 75,700 square kilometers (18.7 million acres) of the forest is lost. This style of deforestation has proven to be fast moving and efficient while tearing apart the land that humans, plants, and animals all inhabit. Global warmin… [47] Local community economies are affected by this because they depend on these resources to drive their local markets and feed their families. Many other countries and regions are beginning to start or have already started reforestation programs and initiatives in hopes of counteracting global climate change drivers. [citation needed] More people means that more space is needed, and there are two ways to accommodate it, going up or going out. [8] In the Northern Hemisphere, 1983 to 2012 were the warmest 30-year period of the last 1400 years.[9]. The Main Causes of Deforestation. In the nine years from 1991 to 2000, the total area of Amazon rainforest cleared since 1970 rose from 419,010 to 575,903 km 2 (161,781 to 222,357 sq mi), comparable to the land area of Spain, Madagascar or Manitoba.Most of this lost forest was replaced by pasture for cattle. Some land is also used for roads and buildings, especially in urban areas. Modern medicine is another thing affected by deforestation because several medicines are derived from plants found in these areas. The relationship between deforestation and climate change is one of a positive feedback loop. Their methods included “benefit-distribution systems” and dividends for ecosystem services. Loss of natural habitats. Habitat loss is common when deforestation happens because not only are the trees being cut down, but the land trees previously inhibited suffer extreme soil erosion due to lack of protection from the tree coverage. As noted by Offioing and Ita, it leads to a cycle of shrinking crop yields and having to amend poor quality soils continuously due to soil degradation. Chopping down of trees disrupts the flow of water and leads to floods in some areas. Deforestation and forest degradation account for nearly 20% of all man-made emissions. The types of drivers vary greatly depending on the region in which they take place. Restoring trees in deforested places is called reforesting. Destruction of natural habitat and loss of species. This subject is usually discussed when looking at the effects it has on the rainforest biome, but it can also occur anywhere in the world when a forest is artificially transformed for another purpose. ", "UNEP Billion Tree Campaign Hands Over to the Young People of the Plant-for-the-Planet Foundation", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Deforestation_and_climate_change&oldid=994369091, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing cleanup from August 2020, Cleanup tagged articles with a reason field from August 2020, Wikipedia pages needing cleanup from August 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 10:45. As the development of the country's caused a decline in forest cover, a reduction in biodiversity was seen in those areas. In December 2011, after more than 12 billion trees had been planted, UNEP formally handed management of the program over to the not-for-profit Plant-for-the-Planet initiative, based in Munich, Germany. [citation needed] All of this requires more energy, which releases more pollution, furthering the damage. Between 2001 and 2015 only 27 +/- 5% of all forest disturbances globally were for agricultural expansion. [4] Peatland degradation also emits GHG. [citation needed] Deforestation sends a shock wave through the natural world, resulting in many previously unforeseen complications,[citation needed] This shows how much of an impact humans can have on themselves by continuing to take down forested land. 1. Deforestation is a contributor to global warming, and is often cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect. In addition to their previously mentioned roles, trees also function to retain water and topsoil, which provides the rich nutrients to sustain additional forest life. Land has other uses besides growing trees. This is notable because loss of forest habitats puts biodiversity in jeopardy. [33], It is also important to note that not all deforestation is as result of agriculture expansion. [44] Unfortunately, since forests are often cleared by fire such as in slash and burn agriculture, the combustion process of wood release huge amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Between August 2003 and 2004, the deforestation rate for the Amazon, the world’s largest tropical forest, was the second highest ever recorded. In recent times, the ill effects of deforestation have come to light in the form of various environmental catastrophes taking place all over the world, such as tsunamis, hurricanes and earthquakes. Deforestation is ongoing and is shaping climate and geography. Desertification is a type of land degradation in drylands in which biological productivity is lost due to natural processes or induced by human activities whereby fertile areas become increasingly arid. [28], Deforestation, particularly in large swaths of the Amazon, where nearly 20% of the rainforest has been clear cut, has climactic effects and effects on water sources as well as on the soil. Since 1960, roughly 15% of the Amazon has been removed with the intention of replacing the land with agricultural practices. Along with other Southeast Asian countries deforestation in the Philippines is a major environmental issue.Over the course of the 20th century, the forest cover of the country dropped from 70 percent down to 20 percent. Further effects of deforestation include soil erosion and coastal flooding. [14], Livestock ranching requires large portions of land to raise herds of animals and livestock crops for consumer needs. Loss and degradation of forest has a direct impact on the Earth's diverse flora and fauna and, therefore, on climate change because they are the best defense against CO2 buildup in the atmosphere. This process will be repeated about 5 to 10 times before a farmer would return to a patch of once deforested land allowed to return to a forested state. A large contributing factor to deforestation is the lumber industry. When the trees burn or rot, the carbon in them returns to the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide. Reforestation can also help mitigate the effects of soil degradation and pollution depending on the methods of planting, location, and plant species.[22]. In order to make up for the loss, more trees are being planted. Ecological zones will shift by approximately 160 km per 1 degree Celsius. Afforestation is the planting of trees where there was no previous tree coverage. That’s every two seconds, every single day. The repeated cycle of low yields and shortened fallow periods eventually results in less vegetation being able to grow on once burned lands and a decrease in average soil biomass. [38][39][12] If there is more foliage photosynthesizing more CO2 will be absorbed, thereby balancing the potential temperature increases. A total of almost 4 million hectares (9.9×10^6 acres)[10] of timber is harvested each year. Their involvement also helps to ensure that their cultural practices remain intact.[12]. Its area of approximately seven million square kilometers covers the largest hydrographic network on the planet, through which runs about one fifth of the fresh water on the world's surface. [67][68] We can look in either direction and continue this timeline of damage being caused by the need to expand and accommodate human needs and desires, as most choices will have impacts elsewhere. Therefore, implementing a CBFM system can provide rural development while mitigating climate change and sustaining biodiversity within the region. Although, it could lead to infringing upon ecosystems and create complications in environments that previously did not have tree coverage or forests. Three months before the conference, the 7 billion planted trees mark had been surpassed. Deforestation is one of the significant cause of global warming due to objects that produce carbon substances to cause the earth to getting hotter. This results in an increase in the absorption of light energy from the sun in the form of heat, enhancing global warming. [56] The process is usually encouraged by governments because they want it to lead to a decrease in carbon dioxide and because it increases the aesthetics of the area. [49], Reduced impact logging (RIL) is a sustainable forestry method as it decreases the forest and canopy damages by approximately 75% compared to the conventional logging methods. Global models and national greenhouse gas inventories give similar results for deforestation emissions. Moreover, agricultural expansion plays a role in coupled systems that cause climatic effects that reach far beyond agricultural croplands.

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